Want to know more?

There is an extensive scientific literature about furniture and flame retardants. To facilitate your research, we have collected some material here. However, this does not represent an exhaustive list.

Recent studies:

• Assessment of POPs in air from Spain using passive sampling from 2008 to 2015. Part I: Spatial and temporal observations of PBDEs – The Science of the Total Environment 2018 – Roscales JL, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Ros M, Vicente A, Barrios L, Jiménez B.

• Organophosphate flame retardants in dust collected from United States fire stations – Environment International 2018 – Beverly S, Todd P Whitehead, Ranjit G, Joginder Dhaliwal, F. Reber Brown, Myrto Petreas, Sharyle Patton, S. K. Hammonda.

• Exposure to organophosphate flame retardant chemicals in the U.S. general population: Data from the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey – Environment International 2018 – MariaOspina, Nayana K, Jayatilaka, Lee-Yang Wong, Paula Restrepo Antonia M. Calafat.

• Do flame retardant chemicals increase the risk for thyroid dysregulation and cancer? – Current Opinion in Oncology 2017 – Hoffman K, Sosa JA, Stapleton HM.

• Metabolites of organophosphate ester flame retardants in urine from Shanghai, China – Environmental Research 2018 – YanSun, Xia Gong, Wanlong Lin, Ye Liu, Yujie Wang, Minghong Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jing Ma.

• Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals: Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review – Chemosphere 2017 – Eva J. Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J. Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor.

• Thyroid-disrupting chemicals and brain development: an update – Endocrine Connection 2018 – Mughal BB, Fini JB, Demeneix BA.

• Translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from field-contaminated soils to an edible plant – Journal of Hazardous Materials 2018 – Yang CY, Wu SC, Lee CC, Shih YH.

•Androgen receptor modulation following combination exposure to brominated flame-retardants – Scientific Reports 2018 – Kharlyngdoh JB, Pradhan A, Olsson PE.

• Studies on the interaction of BDE-47 and BDE-209 with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based on the neurotoxicity through fluorescence, UV-vis spectra,and molecular docking – Toxicology Letters 2018 – Wang S, Wu C, Liu Z, You H .

• Contamination trends and factors affecting the transfer of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers, tetrabromobisphenol A, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol to breast milk in Japan – Environmental Pollution 2018 – Fujii Y, Kato Y, Masuda N, Harada KH, Koizumi A, Haraguchi K.

• Flame retardants in UK furniture increase smoke toxicity more than they reduce fire growth rate –  Chemosphere 2017 – Sean McKenna, Robert Birtles, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Michael Spearpoint, Anna A. Stec, T. Richard Hull.

• Fire Toxicity – the elephant in the room? – Fire Safety Journal 2017 – Anna A. Stec.

• A human mixture risk assessment for neurodevelopmental toxicity associated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers used as flame retardants – Enviornmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 2017 – Olwenn V. Martin, Richard M. Evans, Michael Faust, Andreas Kortenkamp

• Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis – Chemosphere 2012 – Van der Veen I, de Boer J.

• Use of alternative assays to identify and prioritize organophosphorus flame retardants for potential developmental and neurotoxicity – Neurotoxicol Teratol 2015 
Behl M, Hsieh JH, Shafer TJ, Mundy WR, Rice JR, Boyd WA, Freedman JH, Hunter ES 3rd, Jarema KA, Padilla S, Tice RR. 

• No Brainer. The impact of chemicals on children’s brain development:  a cause for concern and a need for action – CHEM Trust Report 2017 – Maricel V Maffini, Barbara Demeneix, Philippe Grandjean, Michael Warhust, Ninja Reineke.

• Comparative neurotoxicity screening in human iPSC-derived neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes – Brain Research 2016

Pei Y, Peng J, Behl M, Sipes NS, Shockley KR, Rao MS, Tice RR, Zeng X.

• Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers: sources, occurrence, toxicity and human exposure – Environmental Pollution 2015 – Wei GL, Li DQ, Zhuo MN, Liao YS, Xie ZY, Guo TL, Li JJ, Zhang SY, Liang ZQ.

• Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters: Concentrations and age trends in Australian children – Environment International 2018 – Chang He, Leisa-Maree L. Toms, Phong Thai, Nele Van den Eede, Xianyu Wang, Yan Li, Christine Baduel, Fiona A. Harden, Amy L. Heffernan, Peter Hobson, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F. Mueller

• Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urine from young children in Queensland, Australia and associations with environmental and behavioural factors – Environmental Research 2018 – Chang He, Karin English, Christine Baduel, Phong Thai, Paul Jagals, Robert S. Ware, Yan Li, Xianyu Wang, Peter D. Sly, Jochen F. Mueller

• After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California – Environmental Science & Technology 2012 – Dodson RE, Perovich LJ, Covaci A, Van den Eede N, Ionas AC, Dirtu AC, Brody JG, Rudel RA.

• Legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants in human milk in Europe: Implications for children’s health – Environmental International 2017

Cechová E, Vojta S, Kukucka P, Kocan A, Trnovec T, Murínová LP, de Cock M, van de Bor M, Askevold J, Eggesbø M, Scheringer M.

• Sources and human exposure implications of concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in dust from UK cars, classrooms, living rooms, and offices – Environmental International 2015 – Brommer S, Harrad S.

• Flame Retardant Chemicals in College Dormitories: Flammability Standards Influence Dust Concentrations – Environmental Science & Technology 2017

Dodson RE, Rodgers KM, Carey G, Cedeno Laurent JG, Covaci A, Poma G, Malarvannan G, Spengler JD, Rudel RA, Allen JG.

•Legacy and alternative flame retardants in Norwegian and UK indoor environment: Implications of human exposure via dust ingestion – Environmental International 2017 – Kademoglou K, Xu F, Padilla-Sanchez JA, Haug LS, Covaci A, Collins CD.

• Sex Specific Placental Accumulation and Behavioral Effects of Developmental Firemaster 550 Exposure in Wistar Rats – Scientific Reports 2017

Baldwin KR, Phillips AL, Horman B, Arambula SE, Rebuli ME, Stapleton HM, Patisaul HB.

• Legacy and emerging flame retardants (FRs) in the freshwater ecosystem: A review – Environmental Research 2017 – Mehreen Iqbal, Jabir Hussain Syed, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Riffat Naseem Malik, Abida Farooqi, Ayesha Butt,  Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Alessandra Cincinelli, Kevin C. Jones.

• Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants – Chemosphere 2016 – Erika D, Schreder A, Nancy Uding, Mark J, La Guardia.

•Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards – Environmental Science Technology 2016 – Cooper EM, Kroeger G, Davis K, Clark CR, Ferguson PL, Stapleton HM

• Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies – Environmental Science & Technology 2016

Susanna D. Mitro, Robin E. Dodson, Veena Singla, Gary Adamkiewicz, Angelo F. Elmi, Monica K. Tilly, and Ami R. Zota

• Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy – Environmental Science & Technology 2016 – Xu F, Giovanoulis G, van Waes S, Padilla-Sanchez JA, Papadopoulou E, Magnér J, Haug LS, Neels H, Covaci A.

• Emerging and legacy flame retardants in UK human milk and food suggest slow response to restrictions on use of PBDEs and HBCDD – Environmental International 2017 – Tao F, Abou-Elwafa Abdallah M, Ashworth DC, Douglas P, Toledano MB, Harrad S.

• Organophosphate esters flame retardants in the indoor environment – Environmental International 2017 – Vykoukalová M, Venier M, Vojta S, Melymuk L, Becanová J, Romanak K, Prokes R, Okeme JO, Saini A, Diamond ML, Klánová J.

• Dust from U.K. Primary School  Classrooms and Daycare Centers:  The Significance of Dust As a Pathway of Exposure of Young U.K. Children to Brominated Flame Retardants and Polychlorinated Biphenyls – Environmental Science & Technology 2010 – Harrad S, Goosey E, Desborough J, Abdallah MAE, Roosens L, Covaci A.

• Adipogenic Effects and Gene Expression Profiling of Firemaster® 550 Components in Human Primary Preadipocytes – Environmental Health Perspectives 2017 – Tung EWY, Peshdary V, Gagné R, Rowan-Carroll A, Yauk CL, Boudreau A, Atlas E.

• Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and  Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization – Environmental Health Perspectives 2017 – Carignan CC, Mínguez-Alarcón L, Butt CM, Williams PL, Meeker JD, Stapleton HM, Toth TL, Ford JB, Hauser R; EARTH Study Team.

• Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (flame retardants) in mother-infant pairs in the Southeastern U.S. – International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2017 – Terry P, Towers CV, Liu LY, Peverly AA, Chen J, Salamova A.

• Flame retardants. The case for policy change – Environment & Human Health 2013 – Wargo J, Alderman N, Wargo L, Bradley JM, Addiss S.


The Alliance for Flame Retardant Free Furniture in Europe consists of stakeholders ranging from environmental and health NGOs to industry, cancer organisations, fire fighters and labour unions.

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