STUDIES

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You will find here a sample of the existing scientific literature about Flame Retardants’ Environmental, Health and Fire Toxicity effects. Please note that the following sample does not constitute an exhaustive list.

Studies on Environmental Effects of Flame Retardants

  • Assessment of organophosphate flame retardants in Mediterranean Boops boops and their relationship to anthropization levels and microplastic ingestion – Chemosphere 2020 – Garcia-Garin O., Vighi M., Sala B., Aguilar A., Tsangaris C., Digka N., Kaberi H., Eljarrat E., Borrell A.
  • Adélie penguin colonies as indicators of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in East Antarctica – Chemosphere 2020 – Lewis PJ, McGrath TJ, Emmerson L, Allinson G, Shimeta J.
  • Glacial Melt Inputs of Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants to the Largest High Arctic Lake – Environ Sci Technol. 2020 – Sun Y, De Silva AO, St Pierre KA, Muir DCG, Spencer C, Lehnherr I, MacInnis JJ.
  • Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in humans and environmental compartments: a comprehensive review of the last five years of research – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 – Klinčić D, Dvoršćak M, Jagić K, Mendaš G, Herceg Romanić S.
  • Landfills represent significant atmospheric sources of exposure to halogenated flame retardants for urban-adapted gulls – Environ Int. 2020 – Sorais M, Mazerolle MJ, Giroux JF, Verreault J.
  • Assessment of the effects of early life exposure to triphenyl phosphate on fear, boldness, aggression, and activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks – Environ Pollut. 2019 – Hanas AK, Guigueno MF, Fernie KJ, Letcher RJ, Ste-Marie Chamberland F, Head JA.
  • Sex-specific effects of perinatal FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) exposure on socioemotional behavior in prairie voles – Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2019 – Sagi Enicole A.Gillera, William P. Marinello, Brian M.Horman, Allison L.Phillips, Matthew T. Ruis, Heather M. Stapleton, David M. Reif, Heather B. Patisaul.
  • Urban Stormwater: An Overlooked Pathway of Extensive Mixed Contaminants to Surface and Groundwaters in the United States – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Jason R. Masoner, Dana W. Kolpin, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Larry B. Barber, David S. Burden, William T. Foreman, Kenneth J. Forshay, Edward T. Furlong, Justin F. Groves, Michelle L. Hladik, Matthew E. Hopton, Jeanne B. Jaeschke, Steffanie H. Keefe, David P. Krabbenhoft, Richard Lowrance, Kristin M. Romanok, David L. Rus, William R. Selbig, Brianna H. Williams, Paul M. Bradley.
  • Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers – Water 2019 – Declan Page, Joanne Vanderzalm, Anupama Kumar, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna H. Kaksonen, Stuart Simpson.
  • Silicone Pet Tags Associate Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-isopropyl) Phosphate Exposures with Feline Hyperthyroidism – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Carolyn M. Poutasse, Julie B. Herbstman, Mark E. Peterson, Jana Gordon, Peter H. Soboroff, Darrell Holmes, Dezere Gonzalez, Lane G. Tidwell, Kim A. Anderson.
  • Polyurethane heat preservation materials: The significant sources of organophosphorus flame retardants – Chemosphere 2019 – Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Tan F, Li Q, Zhao H, Xie Q, Chen J.
  • Effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish – Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 – Liu X, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu S, Ji K, Choi K.
  • First determination of high levels of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in dolphins from Southern European waters – Environ Res. 2019 – Sala B, Giménez J, de Stephanis R, Barceló D, Eljarrat E.
  • Legacy and emerging flame retardants (FRs) in the freshwater ecosystem: A review – Environmental Research 2017 – Mehreen Iqbal, Jabir Hussain Syed, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Riffat Naseem Malik, Abida Farooqi, Ayesha Butt,  Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Alessandra Cincinelli, Kevin C. Jones.
  • Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern along the California coast (2009-10) using passive sampling devices. Marine pollution bulletin 2013 – Alvarez, D. A., Maruya, K. A., Dodder, N. G., Lao, W., Furlong, E. T., & Smalling, K. L.
  • Occurrence of hydrophobic organic pollutants (BFRs and UV-filters) in sediments from South America. Chemosphere 2013 – Barón, E., Gago-Ferrero, P., Gorga, M., Rudolph, I., Mendoza, G., Zapata, A. M., Díaz-Cruz, S., et al.
  • In vitro biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Dechlorane Plus flame retardants: a case study of ring-billed gull breeding in a pollution hotspot in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Environment international 2013 – Chabot-Giguère, B., Letcher, R. J., & Verreault, J.
  • High prevalence of infections and pathological changes in burbot (Lota lota) from a polluted lake (Lake Mjøsa, Norway). Chemosphere 2013 – Berg, V., Zerihun, M. A., Jørgensen, A., Lie, E., Dale, O. B., Skaare, J. U., & Lyche, J. L.
  • Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758). Veterinaria italiana 2013 – Angioni, S. A., Scortichini, G., Diletti, G., Perletta, F., Ceci, R., & Ferri, N. (n.d.).
  • Toxicokinetics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers across life stages in the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2013 – Cary, T. L., & Karasov, W. H.
  • PBDE flame retardants and PCBs in migrating Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada – Chemosphere 2012 – Alava, J. J., Lambourn, D., Olesiuk, P., Lance, M., Jeffries, S. J., Gobas, F. A. P. C., & Ross, P. S.
  • Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: another risk to a vulnerable species. Environmental pollution 2012 – Alonso, M. B., Eljarrat, E., Gorga, M., Secchi, E. R., Bassoi, M., Barbosa, L., Bertozzi, C. P., et al.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments–a review on occurrence and human exposure. Environmental pollution 2012 – Besis, A., & Samara, C.
  • Levels and distributions of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in sediment from Taihu Lake, China. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2012 – Cao, S., Zeng, X., Song, H., Li, H., Yu, Z., Sheng, G., & Fu, J.
  • Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 108, 106–11. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.10.013 2012 – Chan, W. K., & Chan, K. M.
  • Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs. PLoS One 2012 – Bartrons, M., Grimalt, J. O., De Mendoza, G., & Catalan, J.
  • Are reductions in industrial organic contaminants emissions in rich countries achieved partly by export of toxic wastes? Environmental science & technology 2011 – Breivik, K., Gioia, R., Chakraborty, P., Zhang, G., & Jones, K. C.
  • Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily. Journal of food protection, doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-176 2011 – Brambilla, G., De Filippis, S. P., Iamiceli, A. L., Iacovella, N., Abate, V., Aronica, V., Di Marco, V., et al.
  • Environmental pollutants in the Swedish marine ecosystem, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Chemosphere, 82(9), 1286–92. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.029 2011 – Carlsson, P., Herzke, D., Wedborg, M., & Gabrielsen, G. W.
  • Health effects of persistent organic pollutants: the challenge for the Pacific Basin and for the world. Reviews on environmental health 2011 – Carpenter, D. O.
  • Disease susceptibility of salmon exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Aquatic toxicology 2010 – Arkoosh, M. R., Boylen, D., Dietrich, J., Anulacion, B. F., Ginaylitalo, Bravo, C. F., Johnson, L. L., et al.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs. Environmental toxicology and chemistry doi:10.1002/etc.37 2010 – Champoux, L., Moisey, J., & Muir, D. C. G.
  • Determination of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins in fish collected from three regions of Japan. Molecular nutrition & food research 2008 – Ashizuka, Y., Nakagawa, R., Hori, T., Yasutake, D., Tobiishi, K., & Sasaki, K.
  • Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants. Environmental science & technology 2008 – Brown, T. N., & Wania, F.
  • Investigations of the potential influence of environmental contaminants on the thymus and spleen of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Environmental science & technology 2005 – Beineke, A., Siebert, U., McLachlan, M., Bruhn, R., Thron, K., Failing, K., Müller, G., et al.
  • An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release – Environment International 2003 – Alaee M.
  • A global review of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant contamination in birds. Environment international, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.05.013 2010 – Chen, D., & Hale, R. C.
  • Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 158(5), 1883–9. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.10.042 2010 – Chen, D., Hale, R. C., Watts, B. D., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E., & Mojica, E. K.
  • Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 168, 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.03.040 2012 – Chen, D., Letcher, R. J., Burgess, N. M., Champoux, L., Elliott, J. E., Hebert, C. E., Martin, P., et al.
  • Determination of non-halogenated, chlorinated and brominated organophosphate flame retardants in herring gull eggs based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography. A, 1220, 169–74. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.11.046 2012 – Chen, D., Letcher, R. J., & Chu, S.
  • Flame retardants in eggs of American kestrels and European starlings from southern Lake Ontario region (North America). Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, 14(11), 2870–6. doi:10.1039/c2em30472d 2012 – Chen, D., Letcher, R. J., & Martin, P.
  • Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: comparison with historical data. The Science of the total environment, 444, 205–11. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.104 2013 – Chen, S.-J., Feng, A.-H., He, M.-J., Chen, M.-Y., Luo, X.-J., & Mai, B.-X.
  • BDE-47 disrupts axonal growth and motor behavior in developing zebrafish. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 120-121, 35–44. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.04.014 2012 – Chen, X., Huang, C., Wang, X., Chen, J., Bai, C., Chen, Y., Chen, X., et al.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) alter larval settlement of marine intertidal organisms across three phyla via reducing bacterial abundance on the biofilms. Environmental science & technology, 46(14), 7772–81. doi:10.1021/es300261c 2012 – Chiu, J. M. Y., Po, B. H. K., Chan, C. Y. S., Lam, M. H. W., Qian, P.-Y., & Wu, R. S. S.
  • Toxic effects of two brominated flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-183 on the survival and protein expression of the tubificid Monopylephorus limosus. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 84, 46–53. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.022 2012 – Chiu, K. H., Lin, C.-R., Huang, H.-W., Shiea, J., & Liu, L. L.
  • Chronic exposure of 2,2’,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) alters locomotion behavior in juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic toxicology, 98(4), 388–95. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.03.012 2010 – Chou, C.-T., Hsiao, Y.-C., Ko, F.-C., Cheng, J.-O., Cheng, Y.-M., & Chen, T.-H.
  • PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 161, 229–34. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.11.001 2012 – Cincinelli, A., Martellini, T., Misuri, L., Lanciotti, E., Sweetman, A., Laschi, S., & Palchetti, I.
  • Novel brominated flame retardants: a review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour. Environment international, 37(2), 532–56. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.11.007 2011 – Covaci, A., Harrad, S., Abdallah, M. A.-E., Ali, N., Law, R. J., Herzke, D., & De Wit, C. A.
  • Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in the River Aire (UK). Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 179C(null), 194–200. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.001 2013 – Cristale, J., Katsoyiannis, A., Sweetman, A. J., Jones, K. C., & Lacorte, S.
  • Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and tris(1-chloropropyl) phosphate on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in primary cultures of avian hepatocytes and neuronal cells. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 126(1), 140–8. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs015 2012 – Crump, D., Chiu, S., & Kennedy, S. W.
  • Occurrence of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 2,2’,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in sewage sludge and effluent samples of a wastewater-treatment plant in Cape Town, South Africa. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 62(3), 391–402. doi:10.1007/s00244-011-9720-9 2012 – Daso, A. P., Fatoki, O. S., Odendaal, J. P., & Olujimi, O. O.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers disrupt molting in neonatal Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicology (London, England), 21(5), 1371–80. doi:10.1007/s10646-012-0891-6 2012 – Davies, R., & Zou, E.
  • Measurement of flame retardants and triclosan in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids. Environment international, 40, 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.11.008 2012 – Davis, E. F., Klosterhaus, S. L., & Stapleton, H. M.
  • An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere, 46(5), 583–624. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11999784 2002 – De Wit, C. A.
  • Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic environment – trends and new candidates. The Science of the total environment, 408(15), 2885–918. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.08.037 2009 – De Wit, C. A., Herzke, D., & Vorkamp, K.
  • Transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 31(2), 296–300. doi:10.1002/etc.750 2012 – Desforges, J.-P. W., Ross, P. S., & Loseto, L. L.
  • Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 2: Brominated flame retardants. Environment international. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2012.09.008 2012 – Dietz, R., Rigét, F. F., Sonne, C., Born, E. W., Bechshøft, T., McKinney, M. A., Drimmie, R. J., et al.
  • Anthropogenic and naturally-produced organobrominated compounds in marine mammals from Brazil. Environment international, 36(1), 60–7. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.10.001 2010 – Dorneles, P. R., Lailson-Brito, J., Dirtu, A. C., Weijs, L., Azevedo, A. F., Torres, J. P. M., Malm, O., et al.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in background surface soils from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China: occurrence, sources, and inventory. Environmental science and pollution research international, 17(4), 948–56. doi:10.1007/s11356-010-0295-1 2010 – Duan, Y.-P., Meng, X.-Z., Yang, C., Pan, Z.-Y., Chen, L., Yu, R., & Li, F.-T.
  • Uptake and translocation of organophosphates and other emerging contaminants in food and forage crops. Environmental science and pollution research international. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1363-5 2012 – Eggen, T., Heimstad, E. S., Stuanes, A. O., & Norli, H. R.
  • Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Chemosphere, 90(9), 2365–71. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.10.027 2013 – Eguchi, A., Isobe, T., Ramu, K., Tue, N. M., Sudaryanto, A., Devanathan, G., Viet, P. H., et al.
  • Experimental exposure of eggs to polybrominated diphenyl ethers BDE-47 and BDE-99 in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) and possible species-specific differences in debromination. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 32(2), 393–400. doi:10.1002/etc.2061 2013 – Eisenreich, K. M., & Rowe, C. L.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ether trends in eggs of marine and freshwater birds from British Columbia, Canada, 1979-2002. Environmental science & technology, 39(15), 5584–91. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16124290 2005 – Elliott, J. E., Wilson, L. K., & Wakeford, B.
  • Early exposure to 2,2’,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) affects mating behavior of zebra finches. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 127(1), 269–76. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs076 2012 – Eng, M. L., Elliott, J. E., MacDougall-Shackleton, S. A., Letcher, R. J., & Williams, T. D.
  • Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 178(null), 343–9. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.03.037 2013 – Eng, M. L., Williams, T. D., & Elliott, J. E.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blubber of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from two southeast Atlantic estuarine areas. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 53(3), 483–94. doi:10.1007/s00244-006-0244-7 2007 – Fair, P. A., Mitchum, G., Hulsey, T. C., Adams, J., Zolman, E., McFee, W., Wirth, E., et al.
  • In Ovo Effects of Two Organophosphate Flame Retardants–TCPP and TDCPP–on Pipping Success, Development, mRNA Expression, and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Chicken Embryos. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kft100 2013 – Farhat, A., Crump, D., Chiu, S., Williams, K. L., Letcher, R. J., Gauthier, L. T., & Kennedy, S. W.
  • Relationship between BDE 209 metabolites and thyroid hormone levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 122-123, 28–35. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.05.008 2012 – Feng, C., Xu, Y., Zhao, G., Zha, J., Wu, F., & Wang, Z.
  • Historical contaminants, flame retardants, and halogenated phenolic compounds in peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin. Environmental science & technology, 44(9), 3520–6. doi:10.1021/es100400n 2010 – Fernie, K. J., & Letcher, R. J.
  • Environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 and HBCD alter eggshell thickness and reproductive success of American kestrels. Environmental science & technology, 43(6), 2124–30. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19368224 2009 – Fernie, K. J., Shutt, J. L., Letcher, R. J., Ritchie, I. J., & Bird, D. M.
  • Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71. Toxicological sciences, 102(1), 171–8. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfm295 2008 – Fernie, K. J., Shutt, J. L., Letcher, R. J., Ritchie, J. I., Sullivan, K., & Bird, D. M.
  • Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): changes in thyroid, vitamin A, glutathione homeostasis, and oxidative stress in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxicological sciences, 88(2), 375–83. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfi295 2005 – Fernie, K. J., Shutt, J. L., Mayne, G., Hoffman, D., Letcher, R. J., Drouillard, K. G., & Ritchie, I. J.
  • Pollution of soils with organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, 13(10), 2692–4. doi:10.1039/c1em10538h 2011 – Fries, E., & Mihajlović, I.
  • PBDEs in serum and blubber of harbor, grey and harp seal pups from Eastern Canada. Chemosphere, 82(5), 663–9. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.11.007 2011 – Frouin, H., Lebeuf, M., Hammill, M., Sjare, B., & Fournier, M.
  • Regional variation and possible sources of brominated contaminants in breast milk from Japan. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 162, 269–74. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.11.022 2012 – Fujii, Y., Ito, Y., Harada, K. H., Hitomi, T., Koizumi, A., & Haraguchi, K.
  • Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China. Environmental science & technology, 43(18), 6956–62. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19806727 2009 – Gao, F., Luo, X.-J., Yang, Z.-F., Wang, X.-M., & Mai, B.-X.
  • House crickets can accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly from polyurethane foam common in consumer products. Chemosphere, 86(5), 500–5. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.10.014 2012 – Gaylor, M. O., Harvey, E., & Hale, R. C.
  • Novel flame retardants in urban-feeding ring-billed gulls from the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Environmental science & technology, 46(17), 9735–44. doi:10.1021/es302099f 2012 – Gentes, M.-L., Letcher, R. J., Caron-Beaudoin, E., & Verreault, J.
  • Determination of PBDEs, HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, HBCD, TBBPA and related compounds in sewage sludge from Catalonia (Spain). The Science of the total environment, 444, 51–9. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.066 2013 – Gorga, M., Martínez, E., Ginebreda, A., Eljarrat, E., & Barceló, D.
  • Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, 206, 115–47. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-6260-7_6 2010 – Grenier, J. L., & Davis, J. A.
  • Emerging and historical brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Canada and Spain. Environment international, 40, 179–86. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.014 2012 – Guerra, P., Alaee, M., Jiménez, B., Pacepavicius, G., Marvin, C., MacInnis, G., Eljarrat, E., et al.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment. Environment International, 29(6), 771–779. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00113-2 2003 – Hale, R.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. sewage sludges and biosolids: temporal and geographical trends and uptake by corn following land application. Environmental science & technology, 46(4), 2055–63. doi:10.1021/es203149g 2012 – Hale, R. C., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E., Chen, D., Mainor, T. M., Luellen, D. R., & Hundal, L. S.
  • Brominated flame retardant concentrations and trends in abiotic media. Chemosphere, 64(2), 181–6. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.12.006 2006 – Hale, R. C., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E., Gaylor, M. O., & Mainor, T. M.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in grey seals during their first year of life–are they thyroid hormone endocrine disrupters? Environmental pollution, 126(1), 29–37. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12860100 2003 – Hall, A. J., Kalantzi, O. I., & Thomas, G. O.
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organic pesticides in United Kingdom harbor seals (Phoca vitulina)–mixed exposures and thyroid homeostasis. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 26(5), 851–61. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17521129 2007 – Hall, A. J., & Thomas, G. O.
  • Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and first-year survival probability in gray seal pups. Environmental science & technology, 43(16), 6364–9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746738 2009 – Hall, A. J., Thomas, G. O., & McConnell, B. J.
  • Chronic zebrafish low dose decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) exposure affected parental gonad development and locomotion in F1 offspring. Ecotoxicology (London, England), 20(8), 1813–22. doi:10.1007/s10646-011-0720-3 2011 – He, J., Yang, D., Wang, C., Liu, W., Liao, J., Xu, T., Bai, C., et al.
  • Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in fish from a river system in a highly industrialized area, South China. The Science of the total environment, 419, 109–15. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.035 2012 – He, M.-J., Luo, X.-J., Chen, M.-Y., Sun, Y.-X., Chen, S.-J., & Mai, B.-X.
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA. Ecotoxicology, 18(7), 802–13. doi:10.1007/s10646-009-0323-4 2009 – Henny, C. J., Kaiser, J. L., Grove, R. A., Johnson, B. L., & Letcher, R. J.
  • Deposition history of brominated flame retardant compounds in an ice core from Holtedahlfonna, Svalbard, Norway. Environmental science & technology, 44(19), 7405–10. doi:10.1021/es1016608 2010 – Hermanson, M. H., Isaksson, E., Forsström, S., Teixeira, C., Muir, D. C. G., Pohjola, V. A., & Van de Wal, R. S. V.
  • Occurrence of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in fish from the Czech aquatic ecosystem. The Science of the total environment, 461-462C, 88–98. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.081 2013 – Hloušková, V., Lanková, D., Kalachová, K., Hrádková, P., Poustka, J., Hajšlová, J., & Pulkrabová, J.
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  • Effects of chronic polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure on gonadal development in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 31(2), 347–54. doi:10.1002/etc.1702 2012 – Van Schmidt, N. D., Cary, T. L., Ortiz-Santaliestra, M. E., & Karasov, W. H.
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  • Analysis and occurrence of emerging chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in surficial sediment of the Dalian coastal area in China. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, 13(11), 3104–10. doi:10.1039/c1em10241a 2011 – Wang, D.-G., Alaee, M., Sverko, E., Li, Y.-F., Reiner, E. J., & Shen, L.
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Studies on Health Effects of Flame Retardants

  • In Utero and Lactational Exposure to Flame Retardants Disrupts Rat Ovarian Follicular Development and Advances Puberty – Toxicol Sci. 2020 – Allais A., Albert O., Lefevre PLC., Wade MG., Hales BF., Robaire B.
  • Toddler behavior, the home environment, and flame retardant exposure – Chemosphere 2020 – Sugeng EJ., De Cock M., Leonards PEG., Van de Bor M.
  • New Insights in the Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Three Primary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020 – Quan Zhang, Chang Yu, Lili Fu, Sijia Gu, Cui Wang
  • Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants and the Risk of Low Birth Weight: A Nested Case-Control Study in China – Environ Sci Technol. 2020 – Luo D, Liu W, Tao Y, Wang L, Yu M, Hu L, Zhou A, Covaci A, Xia W, Li Y, Xu S, Mei S.
  • Longer commutes are associated with increased human exposure to tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate – Environ Int. 2020 – Reddam A, Tait G, Herkert N, Hammel SC, Stapleton HM, Volz DC.
  • 6-OH-BDE-47 exposure-induced Parkinson’s disease pathology in Sprague Dawley rat – Sci Total Environ. 2020 – Ji F, Zhu Z, Zhang M, Zhang H, Zhu L, Cai X, Liu W, Song J, Li M, Cai Z.
  • Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in humans and environmental compartments: a comprehensive review of the last five years of research – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 – Klinčić D, Dvoršćak M, Jagić K, Mendaš G, Herceg Romanić S.
  • Trends in neurodevelopmental disability burden due to early life chemical exposure in the USA from 2001 to 2016: A population-based disease burden and cost analysis – Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2020 – Gaylord A, Osborne G, Ghassabian A, Malits J, Attina T, Trasande L.
  • Neonatal exposure to organophosphorus flame retardant TDCPP elicits neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampus via microglia-mediated inflammation in vivo and in vitro – Arch Toxicol. 2020 – Zhong X, Wu J, Ke W, Yu Y, Ji D, Kang J, Qiu J, Wang C, Yu P, Wei Y.
  • Worker exposure to flame retardants in manufacturing, construction and service industries – Environment International 2020 – Estill CF, Slone J, Mayer A, Chen IC, La Guardia MJ.
  • Early-life exposure to the organophosphorus flame-retardant tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate induces delayed neurotoxicity associated with DNA methylation in adult zebrafish – Environment International 2020 – Li R, Guo W, Lei L, Zhang L, Liu Y, Han J, Chen L, Zhou B.
  • Association of Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Early Pregnancy With Fetal Growth – JAMA Pediatr. 2019 – Marion Ouidir, Germaine M. Buck Louis, Jenna Kanner, et al.
  • Knowledge and attitudes regarding exposure to brominated flame retardants: a survey of Croatian health care providers – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 – Jakšić K, Matek Sarić M, Čulin J.
  • Association between Thyroid Function and Exposures to Brominated and Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Rural Central Appalachia – Environ Sci Technol 2019 – Wang S, Romanak KA, Hendryx M, Salamova A, Venier M.
  • Organophosphate Esters: Are These Flame Retardants and Plasticizers Affecting Children’s Health? – Curr Environ Health Rep. 2019 – Doherty BT, Hammel SC, Daniels JL, Stapleton HM, Hoffman K.
  • Thyroid function and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) exposure in Chinese adults from a DBDPE manufacturing area – Environment International 2019 – Chen T, Yu D, Yang L, Sui S, Lv S, Bai Y, Sun W, Wang Y, Chen L, Sun Z, Tian L, Wang D, Niu P, Shi Z.
  • Emerging and legacy brominated flame retardants in the breast milk of first time Irish mothers suggest positive response to restrictions on use of HBCDD and Penta- and Octa-BDE formulations – Environ Res. 2019 – Wemken N, Drage DS, Cellarius C, Cleere K, Morrison JJ, Daly S, Abdallah MA, Tlustos C, Harrad S, Coggins MA.
  • Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants: Are They a Regrettable Substitution for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers? – Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2019 – Arlene Blum, Mamta Behl, Linda S. Birnbaum, Miriam L. Diamond, Allison Phillips, Veena Singla, Nisha S. Sipes, Heather M. Stapleton, Marta Venier.
  • Pruning chemicals from the green building landscape – J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2019 – Goodwin Robbins LJ, Rodgers KM, Walsh B, Ain R, Dodson RE.
  • Fire behaviour of modern façade materials – Understanding the Grenfell Tower fire – J Hazard Mater 2019 – McKenna ST, Jones N, Peck G, Dickens K, Pawelec W, Oradei S, Harris S, Stec AA, Hull TR.
  • Benchmarking the in Vitro Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Plastic Consumer Products – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Lisa Zimmermann, Georg Dierkes, Thomas A. Ternes, Carolin Voelker, Martin Wagner.
  • Concentrations and loadings of organophosphate and replacement brominated flame retardants in house dust from the home study during the PBDE phase-out – Chemosphere 2019 – Percy Z, La Guardia MJ, Xu Y, Hale RC, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, Yolton K, Vuong AM, Cecil KM, Braun JM, Xie C, Chen A.
  • Serum measures of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in reproductive-aged women in the United Kingdom – Environ Res. 2019 – Drage DS, Heffernan AL, Cunningham TK, Aylward LL, Mueller JF, Sathyapalan T, Atkin SL.
  • Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters (OPEs) are associated with chronic kidney disease in the general US population – Environ International 2019 – Kang H, Lee J, Lee JP, Choi K.
  • Multiple exposures to organophosphate flame retardants alter urinary oxidative stress biomarkers among children: The Hokkaido Study – Environment International 2019 – Ait Bamai Y, Bastiaensen M, Araki A, Goudarzi H, Konno S, Ito S, Miyashita C, Yao Y, Covaci A, Kishi R.
  • Concentrations of Brominated Flame Retardants in Indoor Air and Dust from Ireland Reveal Elevated Exposure to Decabromodiphenyl Ethane – Environ. Sci Technol. 2019 – Wemken N, Drage DS, Abdallah MA, Harrad S, Coggins MA.
  • Health Toll From Open Flame and Cigarette-Started Fires on Flame-Retardant Furniture in Massachusetts – AJPH 2019 – Kathryn M. Rodgers, Lucien R. Swetschinski, Robin E. Dodson, Hillel R. Alpert, Joseph M. Fleming, Ruthann A. Rudel.
  • Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in South African indoor dust and cat hair – Environ Pollut. 2019 – Brits M, Brandsma SH, Rohwer ER, De Vos J, Weiss JM, de Boer J.
  • Exposure of Canadian electronic waste dismantlers to flame retardants – Environment International 2019 – Linh V. Nguyen, Miriam L. Diamond, Marta Venier, William A. Stubbings, Kevin Romanak, Lola Bajard, Lisa Melymuk, Liisa M. Jantunen, Victoria H. Arrandale.
  • Assessment of POPs in air from Spain using passive sampling from 2008 to 2015. Part I: Spatial and temporal observations of PBDEs – The Science of the Total Environment 2018 – Roscales JL, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Ros M, Vicente A, Barrios L, Jiménez B.
  • Presence of diphenyl phosphate and aryl-phosphate flame retardants in indoor dust from different microenvironments in Spain and the Netherlands and estimation of human exposure – Environment International 2018 – Björnsdotter MK, Romera-García E, Borrull J, de Boer J, Rubio S, Ballesteros-Gómez A.
  • Organophosphate flame retardants in dust collected from United States fire stations – Environment International 2018 – Beverly S, Todd P Whitehead, Ranjit G, Joginder Dhaliwal, F. Reber Brown, Myrto Petreas, Sharyle Patton, S. K. Hammonda.
  • Exposure to organophosphate flame retardant chemicals in the U.S. general population: Data from the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey – Environment International 2018 – MariaOspina, Nayana K, Jayatilaka, Lee-Yang Wong, Paula Restrepo Antonia M. Calafat.
  • Metabolites of organophosphate ester flame retardants in urine from Shanghai, China – Environmental Research 2018 – YanSun, Xia Gong, Wanlong Lin, Ye Liu, Yujie Wang, Minghong Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jing Ma.
  • Thyroid-disrupting chemicals and brain development: an update – Endocrine Connection 2018 – Mughal BB, Fini JB, Demeneix BA.
  • Androgen receptor modulation following combination exposure to brominated flame-retardants – Scientific Reports 2018 – Kharlyngdoh JB, Pradhan A, Olsson PE.
  • Studies on the interaction of BDE-47 and BDE-209 with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based on the neurotoxicity through fluorescence, UV-vis spectra,and molecular docking – Toxicology Letters 2018 – Wang S, Wu C, Liu Z, You H .
  • Contamination trends and factors affecting the transfer of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers, tetrabromobisphenol A, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol to breast milk in Japan – Environmental Pollution 2018 – Fujii Y, Kato Y, Masuda N, Harada KH, Koizumi A, Haraguchi K.
  • Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters: Concentrations and age trends in Australian children – Environment International 2018 – Chang He, Leisa-Maree L. Toms, Phong Thai, Nele Van den Eede, Xianyu Wang, Yan Li, Christine Baduel, Fiona A. Harden, Amy L. Heffernan, Peter Hobson, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F. Mueller
  • Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urine from young children in Queensland, Australia and associations with environmental and behavioural factors – Environmental Research 2018 – Chang He, Karin English, Christine Baduel, Phong Thai, Paul Jagals, Robert S. Ware, Yan Li, Xianyu Wang, Peter D. Sly, Jochen F. Mueller
  • Do flame retardant chemicals increase the risk for thyroid dysregulation and cancer? – Current Opinion in Oncology 2017 – Hoffman K, Sosa JA, Stapleton HM.
  • Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals: Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review – Chemosphere 2017 – Eva J. Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J. Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor.
  • A human mixture risk assessment for neurodevelopmental toxicity associated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers used as flame retardants – Enviornmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 2017 – Olwenn V. Martin, Richard M. Evans, Michael Faust, Andreas Kortenkamp
  • Flame retardants in UK furniture increase smoke toxicity more than they reduce fire growth rate –  Chemosphere 2017 – Sean McKenna, Robert Birtles, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Michael Spearpoint, Anna A. Stec, T. Richard Hull.
  • No Brainer. The impact of chemicals on children’s brain development:  a cause for concern and a need for action – CHEM Trust Report 2017 – Maricel V Maffini, Barbara Demeneix, Philippe Grandjean, Michael Warhust, Ninja Reineke.
  • Legacy and alternative flame retardants in Norwegian and UK indoor environment: Implications of human exposure via dust ingestion – Environmental International 2017 – Kademoglou K, Xu F, Padilla-Sanchez JA, Haug LS, Covaci A, Collins CD.
  • Sex Specific Placental Accumulation and Behavioral Effects of Developmental Firemaster 550 Exposure in Wistar Rats – Scientific Reports 2017
  • Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and  Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization – Environmental Health Perspectives 2017 – Carignan CC, Mínguez-Alarcón L, Butt CM, Williams PL, Meeker JD, Stapleton HM, Toth TL, Ford JB, Hauser R; EARTH Study Team.
  • Adipogenic Effects and Gene Expression Profiling of Firemaster® 550 Components in Human Primary Preadipocytes – Environmental Health Perspectives 2017 – Tung EWY, Peshdary V, Gagné R, Rowan-Carroll A, Yauk CL, Boudreau A, Atlas E.
  • Organophosphate esters flame retardants in the indoor environment – Environmental International 2017 – Vykoukalová M, Venier M, Vojta S, Melymuk L, Becanová J, Romanak K, Prokes R, Okeme JO, Saini A, Diamond ML, Klánová J.
  • Emerging and legacy flame retardants in UK human milk and food suggest slow response to restrictions on use of PBDEs and HBCDD – Environmental International 2017 – Tao F, Abou-Elwafa Abdallah M, Ashworth DC, Douglas P, Toledano MB, Harrad S.
  • Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants – Chemosphere 2016 – Erika D, Schreder A, Nancy Uding, Mark J, La Guardia.
  • Comparative neurotoxicity screening in human iPSC-derived neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes – Brain Research 2016
  • Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards – Environmental Science Technology 2016 – Cooper EM, Kroeger G, Davis K, Clark CR, Ferguson PL, Stapleton HM
  • Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy – Environmental Science & Technology 2016 – Xu F, Giovanoulis G, van Waes S, Padilla-Sanchez JA, Papadopoulou E, Magnér J, Haug LS, Neels H, Covaci A.
  • Use of alternative assays to identify and prioritize organophosphorus flame retardants for potential developmental and neurotoxicity – Neurotoxicol Teratol 2015 
    Behl M, Hsieh JH, Shafer TJ, Mundy WR, Rice JR, Boyd WA, Freedman JH, Hunter ES 3rd, Jarema KA, Padilla S, Tice RR. 
  • Sources and human exposure implications of concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in dust from UK cars, classrooms, living rooms, and offices – Environmental International 2015 – Brommer S, Harrad S.
  • Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers: sources, occurrence, toxicity and human exposure – Environmental Pollution 2015 – Wei GL, Li DQ, Zhuo MN, Liao YS, Xie ZY, Guo TL, Li JJ, Zhang SY, Liang ZQ.
  • Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis – Chemosphere 2012 – Van der Veen I, de Boer J.
  • After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California – Environmental Science & Technology 2012 – Dodson RE, Perovich LJ, Covaci A, Van den Eede N, Ionas AC, Dirtu AC, Brody JG, Rudel RA.
  • Dust from U.K. Primary School  Classrooms and Daycare Centers:  The Significance of Dust As a Pathway of Exposure of Young U.K. Children to Brominated Flame Retardants and Polychlorinated Biphenyls – Environmental Science & Technology 2010 – Harrad S, Goosey E, Desborough J, Abdallah MAE, Roosens L, Covaci A.

Studies on Flame Retardants-induced Fire Toxicity & Standards for Furniture

  • Fire behaviour of modern façade materials – Understanding the Grenfell Tower fire – J Hazard Mater 2019 – McKenna ST, Jones N, Peck G, Dickens K, Pawelec W, Oradei S, Harris S, Stec AA, Hull TR.
  • Health Toll From Open Flame and Cigarette-Started Fires on Flame-Retardant Furniture in Massachusetts – AJPH 2019 – Kathryn M. Rodgers, Lucien R. Swetschinski, Robin E. Dodson, Hillel R. Alpert, Joseph M. Fleming, Ruthann A. Rudel.
  • Flame retardants in UK furniture increase smoke toxicity more than they reduce fire growth rate –  Chemosphere 2017 – Sean McKenna, Robert Birtles, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Michael Spearpoint, Anna A. Stec, T. Richard Hull.
  • Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards – Environmental Science Technology 2016 – Cooper EM, Kroeger G, Davis K, Clark CR, Ferguson PL, Stapleton HM
  • Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis – Chemosphere 2012 – Van der Veen I, de Boer J.

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The Alliance for Flame Retardant Free Furniture in Europe consists of stakeholders ranging from environmental and health NGOs to industry, cancer organisations, fire fighters and labour unions.

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