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There is an extensive scientific literature about furniture and flame retardants. To facilitate your research, we have collected some material here. However, this does not represent an exhaustive list.

Recent studies:

• Adélie penguin colonies as indicators of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in East Antarctica – Chemosphere 2020 – Lewis PJ, McGrath TJ, Emmerson L, Allinson G, Shimeta J.

• Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants and the Risk of Low Birth Weight: A Nested Case-Control Study in China – Environ Sci Technol. 2020 – Luo D, Liu W, Tao Y, Wang L, Yu M, Hu L, Zhou A, Covaci A, Xia W, Li Y, Xu S, Mei S.

• Glacial Melt Inputs of Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants to the Largest High Arctic Lake – Environ Sci Technol. 2020 – Sun Y, De Silva AO, St Pierre KA, Muir DCG, Spencer C, Lehnherr I, MacInnis JJ.

• Longer commutes are associated with increased human exposure to tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate – Environ Int. 2020 – Reddam A, Tait G, Herkert N, Hammel SC, Stapleton HM, Volz DC.

• 6-OH-BDE-47 exposure-induced Parkinson’s disease pathology in Sprague Dawley rat – Sci Total Environ. 2020 – Ji F, Zhu Z, Zhang M, Zhang H, Zhu L, Cai X, Liu W, Song J, Li M, Cai Z.

• Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in humans and environmental compartments: a comprehensive review of the last five years of research – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 – Klinčić D, Dvoršćak M, Jagić K, Mendaš G, Herceg Romanić S.

• Trends in neurodevelopmental disability burden due to early life chemical exposure in the USA from 2001 to 2016: A population-based disease burden and cost analysis – Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2020 – Gaylord A, Osborne G, Ghassabian A, Malits J, Attina T, Trasande L.

• Neonatal exposure to organophosphorus flame retardant TDCPP elicits neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampus via microglia-mediated inflammation in vivo and in vitro – Arch Toxicol. 2020 – Zhong X, Wu J, Ke W, Yu Y, Ji D, Kang J, Qiu J, Wang C, Yu P, Wei Y.

• Landfills represent significant atmospheric sources of exposure to halogenated flame retardants for urban-adapted gulls – Environ Int. 2020 – Sorais M, Mazerolle MJ, Giroux JF, Verreault J.

• Worker exposure to flame retardants in manufacturing, construction and service industries – Environment International 2020 – Estill CF, Slone J, Mayer A, Chen IC, La Guardia MJ.

• Early-life exposure to the organophosphorus flame-retardant tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate induces delayed neurotoxicity associated with DNA methylation in adult zebrafish – Environment International 2020 – Li R, Guo W, Lei L, Zhang L, Liu Y, Han J, Chen L, Zhou B.

• Association of Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Early Pregnancy With Fetal Growth – JAMA Pediatr. 2019 – Marion Ouidir, Germaine M. Buck Louis, Jenna Kanner, et al.

• Knowledge and attitudes regarding exposure to brominated flame retardants: a survey of Croatian health care providers – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 – Jakšić K, Matek Sarić M, Čulin J.

• Assessment of the effects of early life exposure to triphenyl phosphate on fear, boldness, aggression, and activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks – Environ Pollut. 2019 – Hanas AK, Guigueno MF, Fernie KJ, Letcher RJ, Ste-Marie Chamberland F, Head JA.

• Association between Thyroid Function and Exposures to Brominated and Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Rural Central Appalachia – Environ Sci Technol 2019 – Wang S, Romanak KA, Hendryx M, Salamova A, Venier M.

• Sex-specific effects of perinatal FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) exposure on socioemotional behavior in prairie voles – Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2019 – Sagi Enicole A.Gillera, William P. Marinello, Brian M.Horman, Allison L.Phillips, Matthew T. Ruis, Heather M. Stapleton, David M. Reif, Heather B. Patisaul.

• Organophosphate Esters: Are These Flame Retardants and Plasticizers Affecting Children’s Health? – Curr Environ Health Rep. 2019 – Doherty BT, Hammel SC, Daniels JL, Stapleton HM, Hoffman K.

• Thyroid function and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) exposure in Chinese adults from a DBDPE manufacturing area – Environment International 2019 – Chen T, Yu D, Yang L, Sui S, Lv S, Bai Y, Sun W, Wang Y, Chen L, Sun Z, Tian L, Wang D, Niu P, Shi Z.

• Emerging and legacy brominated flame retardants in the breast milk of first time Irish mothers suggest positive response to restrictions on use of HBCDD and Penta- and Octa-BDE formulations – Environ Res. 2019 – Wemken N, Drage DS, Cellarius C, Cleere K, Morrison JJ, Daly S, Abdallah MA, Tlustos C, Harrad S, Coggins MA.

• Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants: Are They a Regrettable Substitution for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers? – Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2019 – Arlene Blum, Mamta Behl, Linda S. Birnbaum, Miriam L. Diamond, Allison Phillips, Veena Singla, Nisha S. Sipes, Heather M. Stapleton, Marta Venier.

• Pruning chemicals from the green building landscape – J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2019 – Goodwin Robbins LJ, Rodgers KM, Walsh B, Ain R, Dodson RE.

• Fire behaviour of modern façade materials – Understanding the Grenfell Tower fire – J Hazard Mater 2019 – McKenna ST, Jones N, Peck G, Dickens K, Pawelec W, Oradei S, Harris S, Stec AA, Hull TR.

• Urban Stormwater: An Overlooked Pathway of Extensive Mixed Contaminants to Surface and Groundwaters in the United States – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Jason R. Masoner, Dana W. Kolpin, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Larry B. Barber, David S. Burden, William T. Foreman, Kenneth J. Forshay, Edward T. Furlong, Justin F. Groves, Michelle L. Hladik, Matthew E. Hopton, Jeanne B. Jaeschke, Steffanie H. Keefe, David P. Krabbenhoft, Richard Lowrance, Kristin M. Romanok, David L. Rus, William R. Selbig, Brianna H. Williams, Paul M. Bradley.

• Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers – Water 2019 – Declan Page, Joanne Vanderzalm, Anupama Kumar, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna H. Kaksonen, Stuart Simpson.

• Silicone Pet Tags Associate Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-isopropyl) Phosphate Exposures with Feline Hyperthyroidism – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Carolyn M. Poutasse, Julie B. Herbstman, Mark E. Peterson, Jana Gordon, Peter H. Soboroff, Darrell Holmes, Dezere Gonzalez, Lane G. Tidwell, Kim A. Anderson.

• Benchmarking the in Vitro Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Plastic Consumer Products – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Lisa Zimmermann, Georg Dierkes, Thomas A. Ternes, Carolin Voelker, Martin Wagner.

• Concentrations and loadings of organophosphate and replacement brominated flame retardants in house dust from the home study during the PBDE phase-out – Chemosphere 2019 – Percy Z, La Guardia MJ, Xu Y, Hale RC, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, Yolton K, Vuong AM, Cecil KM, Braun JM, Xie C, Chen A.

• Serum measures of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in reproductive-aged women in the United Kingdom – Environ Res. 2019 – Drage DS, Heffernan AL, Cunningham TK, Aylward LL, Mueller JF, Sathyapalan T, Atkin SL.

• Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters (OPEs) are associated with chronic kidney disease in the general US population – Environ International 2019 – Kang H, Lee J, Lee JP, Choi K.

• Multiple exposures to organophosphate flame retardants alter urinary oxidative stress biomarkers among children: The Hokkaido Study – Environment International 2019 – Ait Bamai Y, Bastiaensen M, Araki A, Goudarzi H, Konno S, Ito S, Miyashita C, Yao Y, Covaci A, Kishi R.

• Concentrations of Brominated Flame Retardants in Indoor Air and Dust from Ireland Reveal Elevated Exposure to Decabromodiphenyl Ethane – Environ. Sci Technol. 2019 – Wemken N, Drage DS, Abdallah MA, Harrad S, Coggins MA.

• Health Toll From Open Flame and Cigarette-Started Fires on Flame-Retardant Furniture in Massachusetts – AJPH 2019 – Kathryn M. Rodgers, Lucien R. Swetschinski, Robin E. Dodson, Hillel R. Alpert, Joseph M. Fleming, Ruthann A. Rudel.

• Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in South African indoor dust and cat hair – Environ Pollut. 2019 – Brits M, Brandsma SH, Rohwer ER, De Vos J, Weiss JM, de Boer J.

• Exposure of Canadian electronic waste dismantlers to flame retardants – Environment International 2019 – Linh V. Nguyen, Miriam L. Diamond, Marta Venier, William A. Stubbings, Kevin Romanak, Lola Bajard, Lisa Melymuk, Liisa M. Jantunen, Victoria H. Arrandale.

• Polyurethane heat preservation materials: The significant sources of organophosphorus flame retardants – Chemosphere 2019 – Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Tan F, Li Q, Zhao H, Xie Q, Chen J.

• Effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish – Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 – Liu X, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu S, Ji K, Choi K.

• First determination of high levels of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in dolphins from Southern European waters – Environ Res. 2019 – Sala B, Giménez J, de Stephanis R, Barceló D, Eljarrat E.

• Assessment of POPs in air from Spain using passive sampling from 2008 to 2015. Part I: Spatial and temporal observations of PBDEs – The Science of the Total Environment 2018 – Roscales JL, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Ros M, Vicente A, Barrios L, Jiménez B.

• Presence of diphenyl phosphate and aryl-phosphate flame retardants in indoor dust from different microenvironments in Spain and the Netherlands and estimation of human exposure – Environment International 2018 – Björnsdotter MK, Romera-García E, Borrull J, de Boer J, Rubio S, Ballesteros-Gómez A.

• Organophosphate flame retardants in dust collected from United States fire stations – Environment International 2018 – Beverly S, Todd P Whitehead, Ranjit G, Joginder Dhaliwal, F. Reber Brown, Myrto Petreas, Sharyle Patton, S. K. Hammonda.

• Exposure to organophosphate flame retardant chemicals in the U.S. general population: Data from the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey – Environment International 2018 – MariaOspina, Nayana K, Jayatilaka, Lee-Yang Wong, Paula Restrepo Antonia M. Calafat.

• Metabolites of organophosphate ester flame retardants in urine from Shanghai, China – Environmental Research 2018 – YanSun, Xia Gong, Wanlong Lin, Ye Liu, Yujie Wang, Minghong Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jing Ma.

• Thyroid-disrupting chemicals and brain development: an update – Endocrine Connection 2018 – Mughal BB, Fini JB, Demeneix BA.

• Translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from field-contaminated soils to an edible plant – Journal of Hazardous Materials 2018 – Yang CY, Wu SC, Lee CC, Shih YH.

•Androgen receptor modulation following combination exposure to brominated flame-retardants – Scientific Reports 2018 – Kharlyngdoh JB, Pradhan A, Olsson PE.

• Studies on the interaction of BDE-47 and BDE-209 with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based on the neurotoxicity through fluorescence, UV-vis spectra,and molecular docking – Toxicology Letters 2018 – Wang S, Wu C, Liu Z, You H .

• Contamination trends and factors affecting the transfer of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers, tetrabromobisphenol A, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol to breast milk in Japan – Environmental Pollution 2018 – Fujii Y, Kato Y, Masuda N, Harada KH, Koizumi A, Haraguchi K.

• Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters: Concentrations and age trends in Australian children – Environment International 2018 – Chang He, Leisa-Maree L. Toms, Phong Thai, Nele Van den Eede, Xianyu Wang, Yan Li, Christine Baduel, Fiona A. Harden, Amy L. Heffernan, Peter Hobson, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F. Mueller

• Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urine from young children in Queensland, Australia and associations with environmental and behavioural factors – Environmental Research 2018 – Chang He, Karin English, Christine Baduel, Phong Thai, Paul Jagals, Robert S. Ware, Yan Li, Xianyu Wang, Peter D. Sly, Jochen F. Mueller

• Do flame retardant chemicals increase the risk for thyroid dysregulation and cancer? – Current Opinion in Oncology 2017 – Hoffman K, Sosa JA, Stapleton HM.

• Fire Toxicity – the elephant in the room? – Fire Safety Journal 2017 – Anna A. Stec.

• Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals: Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review – Chemosphere 2017 – Eva J. Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J. Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor.

• A human mixture risk assessment for neurodevelopmental toxicity associated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers used as flame retardants – Enviornmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 2017 – Olwenn V. Martin, Richard M. Evans, Michael Faust, Andreas Kortenkamp

• Flame retardants in UK furniture increase smoke toxicity more than they reduce fire growth rate –  Chemosphere 2017 – Sean McKenna, Robert Birtles, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Michael Spearpoint, Anna A. Stec, T. Richard Hull.

• Legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants in human milk in Europe: Implications for children’s health – Environmental International 2017

• No Brainer. The impact of chemicals on children’s brain development:  a cause for concern and a need for action – CHEM Trust Report 2017 – Maricel V Maffini, Barbara Demeneix, Philippe Grandjean, Michael Warhust, Ninja Reineke.

• Flame Retardant Chemicals in College Dormitories: Flammability Standards Influence Dust Concentrations – Environmental Science & Technology 2017

•Legacy and alternative flame retardants in Norwegian and UK indoor environment: Implications of human exposure via dust ingestion – Environmental International 2017 – Kademoglou K, Xu F, Padilla-Sanchez JA, Haug LS, Covaci A, Collins CD.

• Sex Specific Placental Accumulation and Behavioral Effects of Developmental Firemaster 550 Exposure in Wistar Rats – Scientific Reports 2017

• Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (flame retardants) in mother-infant pairs in the Southeastern U.S. – International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2017 – Terry P, Towers CV, Liu LY, Peverly AA, Chen J, Salamova A.

• Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and  Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization – Environmental Health Perspectives 2017 – Carignan CC, Mínguez-Alarcón L, Butt CM, Williams PL, Meeker JD, Stapleton HM, Toth TL, Ford JB, Hauser R; EARTH Study Team.

• Adipogenic Effects and Gene Expression Profiling of Firemaster® 550 Components in Human Primary Preadipocytes – Environmental Health Perspectives 2017 – Tung EWY, Peshdary V, Gagné R, Rowan-Carroll A, Yauk CL, Boudreau A, Atlas E.

• Legacy and emerging flame retardants (FRs) in the freshwater ecosystem: A review – Environmental Research 2017 – Mehreen Iqbal, Jabir Hussain Syed, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Riffat Naseem Malik, Abida Farooqi, Ayesha Butt,  Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Alessandra Cincinelli, Kevin C. Jones.

• Organophosphate esters flame retardants in the indoor environment – Environmental International 2017 – Vykoukalová M, Venier M, Vojta S, Melymuk L, Becanová J, Romanak K, Prokes R, Okeme JO, Saini A, Diamond ML, Klánová J.

• Emerging and legacy flame retardants in UK human milk and food suggest slow response to restrictions on use of PBDEs and HBCDD – Environmental International 2017 – Tao F, Abou-Elwafa Abdallah M, Ashworth DC, Douglas P, Toledano MB, Harrad S.

• Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants – Chemosphere 2016 – Erika D, Schreder A, Nancy Uding, Mark J, La Guardia.

• Comparative neurotoxicity screening in human iPSC-derived neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes – Brain Research 2016

•Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards – Environmental Science Technology 2016 – Cooper EM, Kroeger G, Davis K, Clark CR, Ferguson PL, Stapleton HM

• Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies – Environmental Science & Technology 2016

• Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy – Environmental Science & Technology 2016 – Xu F, Giovanoulis G, van Waes S, Padilla-Sanchez JA, Papadopoulou E, Magnér J, Haug LS, Neels H, Covaci A.

• Use of alternative assays to identify and prioritize organophosphorus flame retardants for potential developmental and neurotoxicity – Neurotoxicol Teratol 2015 
Behl M, Hsieh JH, Shafer TJ, Mundy WR, Rice JR, Boyd WA, Freedman JH, Hunter ES 3rd, Jarema KA, Padilla S, Tice RR. 

• Sources and human exposure implications of concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in dust from UK cars, classrooms, living rooms, and offices – Environmental International 2015 – Brommer S, Harrad S.

• Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers: sources, occurrence, toxicity and human exposure – Environmental Pollution 2015 – Wei GL, Li DQ, Zhuo MN, Liao YS, Xie ZY, Guo TL, Li JJ, Zhang SY, Liang ZQ.

• The effect of gas phase flame retardants on fire effluent toxicity, Polymer Degradation and Stability 2014 – Shirley Molyneux, Anna A. Stec, T. Richard Hull.

• Flame retardants. The case for policy change – Environment & Human Health 2013 – Wargo J, Alderman N, Wargo L, Bradley JM, Addiss S.

• Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis – Chemosphere 2012 – Van der Veen I, de Boer J.

• After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California – Environmental Science & Technology 2012 – Dodson RE, Perovich LJ, Covaci A, Van den Eede N, Ionas AC, Dirtu AC, Brody JG, Rudel RA.

• Dust from U.K. Primary School  Classrooms and Daycare Centers:  The Significance of Dust As a Pathway of Exposure of Young U.K. Children to Brominated Flame Retardants and Polychlorinated Biphenyls – Environmental Science & Technology 2010 – Harrad S, Goosey E, Desborough J, Abdallah MAE, Roosens L, Covaci A.


The Alliance for Flame Retardant Free Furniture in Europe consists of stakeholders ranging from environmental and health NGOs to industry, cancer organisations, fire fighters and labour unions.

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